September 1, 2016
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Data visualization for Taylor’s poems
This reminds me of the class discussion about how the puritans had to have a real story of repent in order to be allowed or welcomed to the church. Is that correct? I know it was the belief in that time. I guess my question is who determines how valid someones attempt to repent is? how exactly does that work? What is the person who is repenting has accepted God grace personally and believes they are filled with Gods Spirit, is it not valid unless the church recognizes it as such?
I thought that this poem was particularly interesting and telling of the culture of the times. This poem was written by Edward Taylor. By doing some research, I discovered that Edward Taylor was a Puritan who fled to American colonies due to religious persecution. This poem really spoke to me because it talks about the care and management of a household, while simultaneously relating to God and becoming closer or being used by God. As the poem says, “Make me, O Lord, thy Spinning Wheele complete” (NAAL 360). This line states that the author wants to be used as a tool for God to work through. This poem in particular just reiterates to me how central God and religion were in their lives. Everything, even the simple act of maintaining a household.
I liked how Taylor wrote this poem in response to his other poem “The Soul’s Groan to Christ for Succor”. From his previous poems, it is clear that Taylor is concerned about the sins he has committed. I think this paragraph exemplifies how much grace God has. He talks about how his sins are “Deadened” and “shall not rise again”. Even though Taylor is saying that he has committed these horrible sins that he perceives as unforgivable, God is willing to wipe the sins away and the guilt that comes with it because he sacrificed himself for mankind (“My Blood doth out the stain”).
I also enjoyed this poem. Taylor holds God on a high pedestal as we can see throughout the preface and the poems. Even though he believes the sins are still alive in him he knows they “shall not rise again” because even though God will forgive him again as he did before, he doesn’t want to have to “purge its filthiness clear off” again. He doesn’t want God to have to keep forgiving him. I believe what Taylor is saying here is even though God forgave him and will continue to forgive him for terrible things, Taylor feels he needs to learn from his lessons and attempt to please God. And this is why they “shall not rise again” even though they are still alive within him.
This paragraph reminds me of our discussion in class about the themes of introspection and internal division from Anne Bradstreet. It discusses the struggle with staying away from sin, but still finding “many faults” in one’s soul.This introspection and internal division leads the speaker to “condemn myselfe before thy Grace” because of the many faults he finds in his soul. This also links back to the theme of dependence upon God for salvation and innate depravity of humans. Humans are naturally weak, sinful, and we are held back by our own frailty. This paragraph is the perfect example of how introspection, internal division, dependence, and innate depravity link together.
I find very interesting that Edward Tylor uses the title “Huswifery” which is a term traditionally designated as the role of a woman in the home. Even though the poem may be well written from a woman’s perspective, I don’t think that is the case here. I think this is a beautiful heart-felt plea of a humble man that wants to be used as an instrument. I like how Tylor employs figure of speech to describe the essential parts of the spinning wheel to express his Puritan spiritual experience and devotion. “My conversation make to be thy Reel.” what I get from this line is that he wants God to use him as an instrument to persuade others to turn from their sinful ways and to adhere to the Puritan faith.
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There is an incredibly interesting tone offered by Taylor throughout this piece in regards to the Lord’s voice in His exchange with man. Up until this point we’ve studied many authors of the Puritan faith that have presented God in a much harsher light. While these practitioners are always quick to establish His divine right in being so, nevertheless, the overall representation of God is of a mysterious and vengeful being. Here however, we are given a completely different facet of the Lord. In this passage we hear a loving God, the tone of which is incredibly personal, almost intimate in nature. At the very least He comes across as an indulgent parent with His phrasing. By making this choice, Taylor unveils an entirely different facet to the Puritan’s version of the Lord, one that is kind, and not simply occupied with strict discipline.
I noticed the markedly different tone as well. In fact, I had to reread it a couple of times to make sure that I was reading it correctly. Everything else we have read has definitely painted a picture of God as an intimidating and vengeful presence and Taylor has turned that supposition on its ear. Instead we are given this image of an “indulgent parent”, as you aptly named it, that responds to every fear by pointing out the numerous ways in which the Cur is harmless to the reader/audience. Exactly as a parent would to a child having nightmares.
This stanza reminds me of The Flesh and the Spirit, by Anne Bradstreet. In both this one and Bradstreet’s poems, we see internal division. I admire the comparison Taylor makes between bees and grace; bees give honey, and grace gives internal faith. Though bees also sting. What is to be said of grace, then? Here, Taylor knows that like bees, grace can also sting. The struggle comes in the last two lines; Taylor believes that if he were to run from grace, he would be left without honey.
This stood out to me, growing up Catholic these morals and viewers were constantly being introduced to me. I interpreted this part of the poem as an indivudial seems to be finding an explanation as to how God’s mercy works. Felt as if there was talk about forgiving sin and washing away all that was done wrong by the individual, yet the idea of a continual sin and the possibilty of, “As if thou couldst not pay the sinners bill” the idea that at some point the sin will be greater than the mercy. hence the sinners bill will be unpaid.
Taylor’s poem is focused on the importance and glory of God. To highlight just how powerful He is, Taylor draws attention to all of the awe-inspiring nature in the world, and questioning just who could have made such beautiful imagery. He then answers his own question by telling the reader God is the only one capable of such a feat, while continuing to bolster God’s reputation. I thought that this poem was an interesting example of Puritan Reflex compared to Anne Bradstreet’s poem “Contemplations” since the speaker in her poem seemed uncertain of God’s glory while Taylor’s speaker seems absolutely certain of it.
I’m not sure I’d agree the speaker in Bradstreet’s Contemplations is uncertain of God’s glory. What she demonstrates is a sense of divided allegiances between the beauty of Nature and the glory of God, and like a good Puritan arrives at the conclusion that God’s glory is eternal (unlike Nature) and opts for devotion to him and everlasting life. I suspect this is what you were getting at in your message. Whereas Bradstreet models the proper and pious behavior of a believer reasoning out her devotion to God, Taylor is here taking an unconflicted, sermonizing sort of approach to the Puritan reflex (he was a minister, and so the authoritative and declarative approach was natural to him and very different from how Bradstreet writes in most of her poems).
You can see the need to appeal to a divine maker in this prose, and also the appeal to nature and to the place of a woman as a “huswife.” The need for humility, to give praise to God, to have order due to status, is all seen in an attempt by the society of the time too please God by doing so. By using references to the Holy Worde we see the appeal to the scriptures in their attempt to follow the word of God in hopes of gaining honor. The humilty from the man is both showing humility to God and to his wife, “make my soule thy Spoole to Bee.” The man is clearly wanting to show humility to all in hopes of also gaining his salvation. He is wanting to gain praise also from his wife in hopes his conversation is worthy of her humble devotion as well, and despite the modern application of the term housewife this man is clearly showing humility and being grateful for his wife and all she does.
This stanza here really gives insight to the trouble going on with trying to not stray from a somewhat righteous path and how satan is really trying to block their way. I had to look up the word “stratagems” and found it to mean a plan or scheme. So the line literally says “by all his schemes he may” which really shows that Satan is using all his wits and plans to be able to block the righteous way for Edward Taylor in this poem. He has to go through fire for sins but since his sins were not as bad it only barely burnt his shins, he did not let his sins overcome him and that is why Satan was not able to stop his pursuit of the righteous way.
This stanza stood out to me for the same reasons as you. Life (or Satan) gives us many challenges to face and walk through fire to overcome. The greater the challenge the greater the outcome but if we misstep or do wrong we are burnt by the challenges that Satan’s puts in front of us. His schemes or Stratagems guild our lives to who, what, and where we need to be.
[Her work in every limb: and lace It up neat with a vital grace, Acting each part though ne’er so small]
Out of the selections of poetry we read by Taylor this was my favorite. I love the analogy of the warming of the wasp and the Puritan desire for grace and salvation. In this quoted passage above I feel as though Taylor almost envies the simple life of the wasp who does her duty to herself and the hive without the human burdens of sin.
I especially liked this passage. The beginning of it reminded me of winter turning to spring. He talks of a northern blast, which reminded me of a northern wind, which I usually associate with winter because they always seem to bring cold air. He also talks of stiff limbs. This just reminded me of winter for some reason. Then he talks about Sol’s warm breath, and warming different parts of the body.
Hillary, you make some interesting points with your comment, the comparison of grace and honey makes you think on what he could possibly mean with that. I think he is comparing living in God’s grace with the harshness of the life of a Puritan, but without living in this strict life and being governed by God’s rules, then there would be no honey, or the pleasure in the after life. So there is a tough choice to be made.
I completely agree with your points. I also see the militaristic imagery here where he says “…behold this Dreadful Enemy Who makes me tremble with his fierce assaults,” this gives us another side of the internal division as having an enemy inside one’s self that needs to be beaten. He is only saved by God’s grace and all he can do is give himself to God. “I do Condemn myselfe before thy Grace.”
Taylor seems to use the imagery of a wasp and the sun as a metaphor for the human experience with God. However, it is not clear whether the wasp represents a woman, Taylor, a body of people, or all of the above. Either way, the wasp is given human like qualities, such as having toes and fingers and wearing a satin jacket. The sun literally warms but figuratively represents the grace of God providing light and warmth for the wasp. Such a simple animal as a wasp used in this introspective poem could point to Taylor assuming the human as merely a small insect when compared with the ideals of the sovereign God. Also, Taylor uses nature here as Bradstreet did, by using its beauty as a medium to reflect on the power of God.
I found the beginning of this poem particularly interesting. The opening line, “Infinity, when all things it beheld/ In Nothing, and of Nothing all did build.” This reminds me of the discussion we had in class about nature and how God is apart of all nature. Edward implies that God has always and will always be apart of everything in the world. Edward’s belief that God built this world evident when he states, “He turned the globe and rigalled it so trim?” God created this world therefore he can be seen in the world.
Taylor’s poem “Huswifery” is a beautiful poem in which it appears that the narrator addresses God and asks him to direct him in the Lord’s will, similarly to how yarn is woven on a spinning wheel. It’s a very effective description of how the narrator believes and/or wishes the Lord would act in his own life. The line “Thine Ordinances make my Fulling Mills” compares the cleansing of cloth to the spiritual cleansing, or baptism, of an individual. The narrator is describing the spiritual cleansing and rebirth in comparison to the everyday occurrence of creating cloth from yarn.
This stanza really struck me as I was reading the larger poem, for similar reasons as others have stated in preceding stanzas. The view of God that is depicted here is very different from the vengeful, exacting divine personification of Justice we have seen in other Puritan writings, yet it doesn’t go so far as to create an impression of God that is simply comforting or coddling. Taylor helps to reconcile these two seemingly polarized views of God in the third line, “Whose wrath is full of Grace,” and in the intriguing final line where he states that God “Frowns with a Smiling Face.” While the other lines in the stanza seem to indicate that Taylor is focusing on the Lord’s mercy and sovereignty, it is also made obvious that He is a God of justice and righteousness simultaneously. This is the first time that I have seen Puritans attempt to find a balance for these two views and I think that Taylor sums it up very well in this stanza.
I find this section to be very pleasing to the senses. I’d imagine that this section could be shared with a poetry class and many would guess that it came from the 1900s rather than this much earlier time period. I think the reason this specific passage seems more “modern” to me is the word choice. The constant references to animals, and specifically ones that are not commonly looked at from a religious background. Also, the line, “Rubbing her legs, shanks, thighs, and hands” seems like something ripped out of a pop song about young love and sex. That was not a comparison I was thinking I’d be able to make going into the readings for today. Even the references to religion seem obscure enough to not tip off the readers to this being Early American poetry. The line, “As if her satin jacket hot” is also something that is so vague and weirdly worded that it could be mistaken for something much more modern.
Norman S. Grabo (1930-2001) editor and critic of Early American Literature, strongly suggests that regardless of the clarity of the poem “Huswifery” readers somehow have not been able to understand it in its entirety and critics have trouble understanding the intended meaning. He argues that no matter how the author’s work is analyzed, the poem is meaningless unless the “Holy robes of glory” are identified. He asserts that the meaning is not revealed solely on the “Huswifery” weaving of garments imagery itself, but, through a deep study and clear understanding of Taylor’s prose and complete “Preparatory Meditations” poem collection. He asserts that the robe of glory does not epitomize a civil, sober life or a doctrinal profession, but a profound spiritual longing for soul purification through righteousness which is the element that prepares the soul for eternal life through Christ’s gift of grace. Therefore, the plea to be “clothed in holy robes” is Taylor’s tangible soul purification henceforward, the culmination in the celebration of The Lord’s Supper which symbolizes the new covenant of Christ’s divine consummation of marriage with human nature.
Grabo, Norman S. “Edward Taylor’s Spiritual Huswifery.” PMLA, vol. 79, no. 5, 1964, pp. 554–560. JSTOR, JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/461141.
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March 12, 2018 at 10:13 pm
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April 30, 2018 at 10:35 pm
In Charles Brockden Brown’s article, “The Difference between History and Romance” he writes about the novel, Wieland, and the relationship that the novel has between history and romance. He explains how history and romance are intertwined and how imperfections of man are part of our future, present, and past. In this paragraph, Clara is overtaken by her senses of this man, “I count among the most extraordinary incidents of my life”. Clara is an irrational character taken over by romantic ideas. Her history and her future are based on her emotional decisions. There is no separation between the two. Brockden Brown writes, “when busy in assigning motives to actions, are not historians but romancers.” Which relates directly to what is happening to Clara in this passage. When talking about history, it is the “noting and recording of the actions of men” which I think is very important because mankind is often if not always driven by passion and emotion. This also plays well with the strong theme of passion and emotion that is current throughout Wieland and all the characters.
Barnard, Philip, and Stephen Shapiro, editors. “The Difference Between History and Romance.” Wieland or the Transformation, with Related Texts, by Charles Brockden Brown, Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 2009, pp. 195–198.
April 27, 2018 at 11:10 pm
This passage is very focused on individualism, Franklin seems to be looking at the better things in his life instead of focusing on the negative. He doesn’t dwell on the idea that he wish he lived life without committing fault instead he touches on it and shifts into how he’s basically glad with how he’s lived life. In “Benjamin Franklin’s Autobiography and the Education of America.” Steven Forde presents the idea that Franklin Autobiography should be used as a model of developing good character and morals. Franklin states, “conceived the bold and arduous project of arriving at moral perfection”, but soon realizes that he had, “undertaken a task of more difficulty than he had imagined.” Forde believes, “each of the loopholes… is deliberate”. The loopholes represent another idea, that being that when striving for greater morality the individual must also take all aspects of life in consideration and be reasonable. Forbes introduces another idea, “If Franklin had viewed virtue more strictly, he might have been forced to give up on it”.
Forde, Steven. “Benjamin Franklin’s Autobiography and the Education of America.” The American Political Science Review, vol. 86, no. 2, 1992, pp. 357–368. JSTOR, JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1964225.
April 27, 2018 at 4:40 pm
In her article “What’s Wrong With Charlotte Temple” Marion Rust addresses Charlotte’s passions as well as her inability to make decisions and relates it to her overall fall from her position in society. Rust uses this paragraph as an example of Charlotte’s indecisiveness. Here it is exemplified that Charlotte can’t even make a simple decision on her own. She has to reach out to her mentor in order to decide what to even do with something as simple as a written letter. Rust catapults off this point by claiming that Charlotte’s future will continue to be unguided and spiral downward farther than she already has. Rust bases this claim on the idea that Charlotte will not be able to support herself because she is always looking to some one outside herself to guide her through obstacles.
Rust, Marion. “What’s Wrong with ‘Charlotte Temple?”.” The William and Mary Quarterly, vol. 60, no. 1, 2003, pp. 99–118. JSTOR, JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3491497.
April 27, 2018 at 4:16 pm
Andrew Scheiber’s article “The Arm Lifted against Me”: Love, Terror and the Construction of Gender in “Wieland” explores Clara’s gendered role in Charles Brockden Brown’s Wieland. Scheiber points to patterns of Clara’s marginalization and enclosure throughout the story, specifically in relation to her role in the context of the familial structure of the story’s plot. Scheiber explains that, “though the Age of Reason invites her to identify herself with the life of the mind, Clara is barred by her womanhood from fully achieving such an identification, since the gender ideology of the times defines the intellect as secondary rather than primary, to the essence of “feminine” nature” (Schieber 178) which is an interesting perspective considering the emphasis on reason and intellect throughout the story, and the fact that Clara is the primary protagonist of the story. Schieber claims that when Clara questions the audience, “was I not likewise transformed from rational and human into a creature of nameless and fearful attributes” (Brown 137) that she is exposing her “self-condemnation” that is born out of the gendered system that relates “rational” and “human” on the masculine side of gender axis, and the negation of those qualities to the feminine side of the axis.
Brown, Charles Brockden, Philip Barnard, and Stephen Shapiro. Wieland ; or the Transformation. An American Tale with Related Texts. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub., 2009. Print.
Scheiber, Andrew J. “‘The Arm Lifted against Me’: Love, Terror, and the Construction of Gender in ‘Wieland.’” Early American Literature, vol. 26, no. 2, 1991, pp. 173–194.
April 27, 2018 at 4:07 pm
In his article, entitled ‘Rip Van Winkle and the Generational Divide in American Culture’, scholar Robert A. Ferguson examines the character of Rip Van Winkle in depth and identifies some of the key flaws that keep this iconic figure of early American Folklore in conversation to this day. One of the flaws identified in Ferguson’s article is the issue of drink, which is brought up in the selected paragraph. Ferguson argues that Rip’s problems with being a “naturally thirsty soul” can be attributed to and explain his lack of success in life: “Habitual drinking keeps him from the steady application that every good farm requires” (533). This explanation of Rip’s tendency to ‘bum around’ aligns to the events of the story, as well as illuminating a reason why he continues to be a influential character in American literature. According to Ferguson, “We value Rip most of all because we find something of our own foibles in him, not because we worry about drink or because we fear an encounter with Heinrich Hudson when we enter the Kaatskill Mountains. Rip’s faults…are our own bad habits carried to extremes. Irving keeps to the lighter side of these extremes” (533-534). Through the relatable aspects and complexities of Rip’s character, readers throughout the years are enabled, through Irving’s lighthearted storytelling, to return to this original American folktale with as timeless a perspective as the readers who scanned the first print-warmed lines of this work.
Ferguson, Robert A. “Rip Van Winkle and the Generational Divide in American Culture.” Early American Literature, vol. 40, no. 3, 2005, pp. 529–544. JSTOR, JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/25057421.
April 27, 2018 at 3:46 pm
In “Charlotte Temple and the End of Epistolarity” by Blythe Forcey, it is said that the motherly affection of the narrator is what really makes this story relatable. I found this article to be interesting because I think that it very true. I think the way that the narrator acts in a motherly way really helps the story along. Forcey states, “Early American readers were able, as they read this novel, to live through a nightmare of dislocation, alienation, and abandonment that mapped their worst fears. But, guided by the careful and caring narrative of Mrs. Rowson, they emerged safe and unscathed, with all troubling ambiguities and terrors temporarily put to rest” (227-228). I think this is a very important quote because it makes you, as the reader, realize just how good of an author Susana Rowson truly was. To be able to make her readers feel safe even during a scary time, all due to the way this story is narrated. Forcey also states, “The motherly character of Rowson’s narrative voice is evident from her first addresses to the reader… Thus she offers, quite explicitly, to stand in for those ‘natural friends’ that the reader might have lost and to protect them from the horrors of the world” (228). I think this is a very important statement as well. Forcey makes it clear that even from the very first sentence of this story, Susana Rowson manages to take our hand and make us feel safe.
Forcey, Blythe. “Charlotte Temple and the End of Epistolarity.” American Literature, vol. 63, no. 2, 1991, pp. 225–241. JSTOR, JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2927163.
April 27, 2018 at 3:45 pm
I also really loved this line. The Earth is the beginning and the end of the cycle of life, and that gets so overlooked in our day to day struggles. Nature and death are like you said, both important parts of the cycle of life. The connection being made in these two lines applies to most of what we have studied through the semester in this class. Even the puritans had themes of nature as a part of their beliefs. Nature and death are the two things that connect humanity because no human on Earth can avoid either one of these things. We will all die and become a part of nature once more, because that is how we began the cycle.
April 27, 2018 at 3:12 pm
Within this passage, we witness the first instance of Charlotte beginning to distrust her own instincts. While at the party she was led to believe would be fun and entertaining, she realizes that being obedient and staying home would have been better than sneaking out with La Rue. As the story progresses we see Charlotte trust those instincts less and, according to Marion Rust’s article “What’s Wrong with ‘Charlotte Temple'”, her behavior becomes increasingly described as some “form of collapse, in which her future direction is determined by nothing more deliberate than her center of gravity.” This continual falling down that Charlotte experiences effectively acts to demonstrate Rowson’s commentary on the unreliability of young women’s own moral character and how they are insufficiently able to stand up to the force of external moral corruption.
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Rust, Marion. “What’s Wrong with ‘Charlotte Temple?”.” The William and Mary Quarterly, vol. 60, no. 1, 2003, pp. 99–118.
April 27, 2018 at 2:25 pm
Throughout her essay, “Olaudah Equiano, Written by Himself”, Cath N. Davidson expresses the aspects which make the text so significant. She explains the strength of emotion that is brought because the narrative is told from Equiano himself. She also expresses that the non-traditional storytelling is what makes it interesting and evokes emotion throughout. Davidson ultimately points out that, “Many aspects of the text make it significant, but especially impressive is it expansive reach” (19). His story is told in many parts of the world and allows readers to feel this narrative from place to place based on his narrating abilities. For example, Equiano himself states “in the preceding chapter I have set before the reader a few of those many instances of oppression, extortion, and cruelty, which I have been a witness to in the West Indies”. As readers have been taken from place to place Equiano stops to show the places he’s been and the things he’s seen. Davidson also points out the emotion-evoking tones and voice used by Equiano. Addressing the many aspects of the text Davidson writes, The text combines (in unequal parts) slave narrative, sea yarn, military adventure, ethnographic reportage, historical fiction, travelogue, picaresque saga, sentimental novel, allegory, tall tale, pastoral origins myth, gothic romance, conversion tale, and abolitionist tract, with different features coming to the fore at different times, and the mood vacillating accordingly” (20). His slave trade journey was terrible and cruel; as readers see Equiano journey from place to place they empathize with him more and begin to realize the terrible conditions in which he was under. The narrative of Equiano become more and more effective for readers because of the places Equiano takes us and the voice he uses to evoke that emotion out of readers.
Davidson, Cathy N. “Olaudah Equiano, Written by Himself.” NOVEL: A Forum on Fiction, vol. 40, no. 1/2, 2006, pp. 18–51. JSTOR, JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40267683.
April 27, 2018 at 1:26 pm
According to William Pencak, author of “Benjamin Franklin’s Biography, Cotton Mather, and a Puritan God,” in this paragraph, Franklin is defending the stakes on which he wrote his autobiography, as well as defending his own morality. Franklin was very dedicated to his moral standing with himself and God and went through extreme measures to ensure that he would end up on the ‘right’ side of things. This particular passage is about the ‘justification of his book’ which ‘illustrates an important philosophical point: the need for ideal principles, realized in practice, to subdue “Natural Inclination,” as well as the bad effects of, “Custom and Company” (Pencak 8). The ‘artifice’ that Franklin describes represents the civilization of people that he is surrounded by and he believes that they should be informed of his knowledge, life, and commitment to God. Franklin didn’t believe that being religious meant attending church, donating to pastors, or things alike. It was about believing in God, Praying honestly, and being virtuous. Throughout this autobiography, Franklin defends and justifies his beliefs and morality.
Pencak, William. “BENJAMIN FRANKLIN’S AUTOBIOGRAPHY, COTTON MATHER, AND A PURITAN GOD.” Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies, vol. 53, no. 1, 1986, pp. 1–25. JSTOR, JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/27773087.
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